2018年10月21日 星期日

鄭勝華《目的自身的流轉與碎形生成——梁任宏<轉進論>及其流動技藝》


目的自身的流轉與碎形生成
——梁任宏《轉進論》及其流動技藝
Liang Jen-hung “Transevolution” and Its Technique

整個宇宙是一部機器,機器代表宇宙永恆運作的方式。
The universe is a machine, a machine that represents the constant operation method of the universe.

-梁任宏
Liang Jen-hung

鄭勝華/
Zheng Sheng-hua/Edit

  第一眼會被它晶體般閃亮映射的光芒所吸引,但它本身是不發光的,亮不過是所有投射的反射,包括聚光燈、自然光以及目光。事實上,此亮光是來自被拋磨到細緻無比的金屬表面,而這只是原本不銹鋼金屬的本性。
At first, appealed by its glittering surface. All that shines is not self-luminous, but reflected from spotlight, from natural light, and from your eyes. In fact, the super-fine surface is polished to bring out its glossy metal finish. This is stainless’s nature.


  外型上,它具備雕塑一般的立體造型,似乎像是甚麼,但卻又不是,並且宛如生命自我無止盡地繁衍,形成某種有機生命體的群像,在你不經意的輕觸下,卻啟動了一連串的運動,優雅地迴旋、擺盪又旋轉,這些差異化的運動彼此交相映襯,使得展場像是一場幻化的自體舞蹈。
On the outside, its sculptural shape seems an imitation of somewhat, yet you can’t name it. As if an endless reproductive being grows into a collection of certain organic lives, activated by your nonchalant contact, rotates, swings and turns in graceful movement. The differentiated actions support one another, contributing a fantasy of dancing bodies.

  這是藝術家梁任宏近期新作《轉進論》(2018)所帶來的整體經驗,但在進一步討論之前,我們先撬開技術的問題,以便順勢進入其精神。
A full experience coming from Liang Jen-hung’s most recent collection “Transevolution” (2018). Let’s talk about the technique, before the discussion, so as to enter its spirit.

一、肉身技術 Body-Techique
  技術,並非是單純的工具,相反的,它就是美感經驗的關鍵,因為它連結了材質表現與感知主體。梁任宏談到《人機繪》的時候,曾經表示︰「整個宇宙是一部機器,機器代表宇宙永恆運作的方式。」如果我們將這段話視為機械或技術在其作品中所象徵的意義的話,那麼就能更接近他整體創作的精神。
Technique, more than a simple tool, is key to the aesthetic experience. Technique links together the media adopted and perceived subject. On “Human-Machine Painting”, Liang mentioned “The universe is a machine, a machine that represents the constant operation method of the universe.” When we perceive what he says as the meaning of machine or techniques presented in his collection, we are one step closer to its original spirit of his entire creation.

  儘管梁任宏的作品充滿技術性,但是他卻是以批判性、抵銷,或低技術的態度進行的。簡言之,絕不是以工具論的角度看待技術,而是將它視為整體經驗的一部份。例如,在《反一ㄥˋ派》中,他所強調的三種反一ㄥˋ(應、映、硬)實為技術的三位一體︰間距、映射與轉化,體現技術作為整體流動的中心理念。
Though his works are full of technique, Liang proceeds his job based on the mindset of “criticism, offsetting, and low technique”. In simple words, Never look at techniques from the perspective of instrumentalism. Instead, see it as part of the entire experience. For example, “Waiting for Activation”, in which he emphasized three “Ying” (1st Ying as the response, 2nd Ying as reflection, and 3rd one as the hardness) as a trinity of techniques: spacing, reflection, and transformation. Technique is realized as the central concept of overall movement.

  然而,藝術創作要從技術要走到去技術,看起來很簡單,但事實上卻是舉重若輕。這份輕盈,是對照於藝術家所面對的幾項沉重︰1.嚴肅的生命課題與現實之重;2.金屬材質本身的重量(加上龐大的體積);3.大量勞力與繁複的實踐。若非超越了這些沉重,並且在極精準的計算、敏銳感受與生命體悟之後,否則技術是無法流變為遊戲。
Simple as it may seem, in creating works, to go from technique to de-technique, it requires certain heaviness of experiences: 1. the heaviness of life and reality; 2. the heaviness of metal (and its volume); 3. The volume of labor and complicated, repetitive practices. Without surpassing such weight, such precise calculation, without having extra-sensitivity and the consciousness to life, technique can’t be transformed into games.

  特殊的是,梁任宏針對每一主題與媒材,往往逐漸發展出與其相對應的獨特思考與技術,因應每次作品的需求,不斷竄出的延伸思考與技術連結,互為拼接與整合,並進而形成某種美學。
What’s special, is that to every subject and media, Liang would often develop its corresponding, unique thoughts and technique to accommodate the needs of each collection. Continuous extensive thinking and technique connection are attached and consolidated with each other into one aesthetic of its kind.

  如果說,他的作品具有某種特殊的技術的話,那並非是由於追尋科技史所促成的結果,也不是呼應專業技術學院養成的要求,而是經由生活反芻,深思他自己生命中或社會形成的某些議題的過程所留下來的痕跡。因此,作品中所謂的技術性,是被生命史、地域性、社會性與時代精神所架構起來。由此,才形成其作品技術的一種特殊性,強烈呈現出具有土味的技術︰姑且稱之為「肉身技術」。
If his works are based on certain particular technique, it does not come from any pursuit for the history of technology, nor from the demand cultivated back in school. It is, however, from the repetitive thinking about human life, about the trace from the progress of certain issues formed throughout his life or in the society. Therefore, the so called “technique”, is built over the history of life, locality, sociality and the zeitgeist. From here, the peculiarity of the technique adopted in his works are taken shape. The technique of locality presented pungently is tentatively called “Body – Technique”.

  關於此,在公視《藝術觀點》(2006)中,詩人張德本就曾將梁任宏比喻為三太子李哪吒,將其腳踩風火輪,手持三叉戢,「折骨刻肉」的形象用來形容藝術家的前衛藝術精神與技術交相混合的狀態。
Regard this part, on PTS’s “Art Point of View” (2006), Poet Zhang De-ben once compared Liang to Nezha the Third Prince, described the avant-garde spirit and mix use of technique of the artist as “riding hot wheels, holding trident, engraving body with snapped bones”.

  這個「肉身技術」,以創作而言,乃是以繪畫為梭子,穿梭交織於美工設計、電路、機械工業、建築業、空間、材質,以及自學的摸索與實驗,最終混合成一種自治的機械動力,完全反映了藝術家個人的生命歷程,以及生活於台灣南部特殊的民俗、信仰與工業混雜的日常氛圍,這是一種有別於西方工業與藝術史的台灣肉身技術。
On the creation, the “Body – Technique”, takes painting as shuttle, weaving back and forth in art design, circuit, machinery industry, construction industry, space, material, and experience and experiment from self-taught practice. The birth of autonomous mechanic power completely reflected the artist’s own living paths, the peculiar custom, belief, and manufacture industry combined daily surrounding in southern Taiwan, something never found in western industry or the history of art, something of Body – Technique that belongs to Taiwan.

二、動力配置︰推進或循環 Power Configuration: Propulsion or Circulation
  除了肉身技術的在地土味之外,接下來,觀察梁任宏作品的動力發展與模態,順勢進入《轉進論》的核心。
Other than the locality of Body – Technique, now we look into the development of power and module that connect us to the core of “Transevolution”.

  《轉進論》關鍵的創作意識︰動力。大致上起於梁任宏早期對「光」的思考,第一件以光為創作核心的作品為《心靈轉譯︰三張椅子》(2000),但對光的關注起於木炭的經驗。藝術家發現,木炭這個材質,原本是植物,經過死亡轉變而來,但似乎又重生,因為它能發出光,而光是一種能,於是即使是一個單純的自然材質,在生死轉換之間,也體現能量轉移的循環之道。後來,隨著作品的發展,從光的關注延伸到自然流動,並由此發現轉化與循環的問題。
The key of “Transevolution” to the consciousness o creation: power. In general it started from the thinking about ‘light’ in the early life of Liang’s. The first light based collection was “Soul Translation: Three Chairs” (2000), in which the concern about light came from a charcoal related experience. The artist found out that the material was once plant, and transformed through death, like rebirth, because of its light, an energy. Therefore even a simple natural material, its living and death forms triggered the realization of circulation of energy shifting. Since then, with the development of collections, the attention extended to natural movement, and thus the issue of transformation and circulation.

  對動力裝置的運用,始自梁任宏第一件動力裝置的作品《存在的儀式》(2000),但該作品其實並非單純運用機械動力,而是綜合了電腦、機械裝置、紅外線感應、聲音、銅鐘、木魚等等不同元素,是一件看似相當豐富且龐雜的複合媒材作品。然而,這個動力模組,後續就成為他作品中動力的基本雛形。之後,梁任宏就不斷地在思考作品中「動力」,包括作品本身自發的動力,以及作品與周遭環境,或觀眾之間的關係動力,甚至對藝術觀念與既成現實所帶來的擾動動力。
The use of power unit started in Liang’s first power unit installed collection ‘Existence Ceremony” (2000). This rich, complicated mixed media consisted of, not only mechanic power, but also computer, mechanic device, infrared sensor, sound, brass bell, and wood block. From here the power module became the basic frame of power in his future collections. Since then, Liang has constantly pondered over the power in his works, including the power generated from the work itself, and from the interaction with its surrounding or the viewers, even the disturbance powered from art concept and the existed reality.

  繼機械動力裝置後,他開始思考運用自然能作為動力。在墾丁半島藝術季駐村的機會,創作《也許來自海中卻在空中飄》(2002)一作,在長期藝術創作、思考與生活經驗的積累下,逐漸發展出他所謂的「自然能美學」概念(2014),創作完全不靠電力的作品。在這個動力創作脈絡上,發展出《被動式》(2015)、《反一ㄥˋ派》(2017)等系列作品。例如,《反一ㄥˋ派》就展現三種動力模式︰1.反應︰觀眾與作品的互為對應,即觀眾施力給作品,而使作品產生某種運動,並回饋給觀者,形成一種互為給予,相互流動;2.反映︰因為作品的轉動,使得作品表面的不銹鋼鏡面不斷映射不同的周遭景物,形成作品本身與空間場域的影像流動;3.反硬︰將鋼性、堅硬與固定的雕塑型態轉為軟性、輕柔與流動的造型,以此動力翻轉雕塑的基本概念。
Following mechanic power unit, Liang moved on to the power propelled by natural force. During his residence in Kenting Art Festival, his work “Perhaps from the Ocean, but it Floats in the Air” (2002), under the long-term art creation activity, thinking and living experiences, is a result of his so called non-electrified “natural power aesthetics” (2014). Following the route of this powered creation, collections developed include “Waiting for Activation” (2015), “Reaction” (2017). For example, “Reaction” has used three different power modes: 1. Reaction: interaction between the viewer and the work, namely a force given by viewer results in a certain movement feeding back from the work to the viewer, a mutual feeding, mutual movement; 2. Reflection: the turning piece continued to reflect its surrounding over the stainless surface of the work, forming a flowing image of the space and the work itself; 3. The presentation of hardness: the steel nature, hardness, fixed sculpture are transformed into soft, light, moving shape, and the transformation of sculpture’s basic concept with such power.

  於是,至此可粗略歸納為三種動力︰電能,這是最初始與普遍的動力,也是人造動能;自然動,包括風力、潮汐、水力等自然動能;人能,強調人的啟動,重視人的參與所帶來的改變與完成。
So far till now, roughly three powers are summarized: electricity, the most primal, and ubiquitous man-made power; natural power, including wind power, tidal power, water power; human’s initiatives, stressing on man’s activation that brings change and completion by participation.

  這三種動能並不是作為作品歷程的區分方式,而是創作者內裡的思考基礎與創作意識的發動點,由此不斷向外擴展。也就是說,三種動能之間形成一種不斷轉化與推進的交互關係,以及擴延至整體循環中所達到的平衡法則,這個對動態的思考(或許也是對生命的根本思考),以及多重動能的展現,正是梁任宏近年來創作的核心主題。在這個基礎上,或許可再加上第四種動力,那就是作品不斷自我演進背後的動力,流動本身的變,以及不變,還有兩者間的辯證關係所直指的生命問題。
The development of his collections are not distinguished by these three powers, but the foundation of artist’s inner thoughts and the commencing point of the creative consciousness that expands outward constantly. In other words, an interaction of transformation and propelling power continues to form among the three powers, and extends to the equilibrium reached in a complete cycle. The thinking towards dynamic (perhaps towards the root of life as well), and the display of multiple powers, are exactly the core of Liang’s recent creations. From here, perhaps with a fourth power, the motivation of the constant self-evolution of his collections, the change and unchanged of movement, and the life issues pointed out by the dialectical relations between the two.

  整體而言,創作的意圖在於透過動力模式,解放堅固與閉鎖的疆界,使之結合成流動與循環的整體意象。
In general, the intention of creation, is to free up the solid, shut-down borderline, through power, and make it a complete image of movement and circulation.

三、《轉進論》的無限碎形 Unlimited Fractals of “Transevolution”
  人類直到一九六年代左右,才發現自然界的事物那些看似隨機與混沌的現象,可能並沒有那麼偶然、失序或無規則,而是以一種潛態互為連結,甚至相互影響。據此,可推測整個自然可能以某種內在關係,構成各物種、各型態與造型之間的衍生關係;也就是說,自然可能具有某種超越了人類感知之外的運作規則。如同碎形理論(fractals)所揭示的,自然界以某種型態不斷自我循環與重複,只是過去一直未曾發現而已。
Not until 1960s did human realized that the Nature was not as random, as chaotic as it seemed, and that all the occasions, disorder and no-rules are in fact connecting, or even affecting, one another, under a certain norm. Accordingly, suggest the Nature holds certain inner relations that form the derivative relationships among all species, all types and models; namely, the Nature transcends human perception and operates under its own rules. As what fractals declares, the Nature is a constant self-circulation and self-repetition under some kind of mode that was never been disclosed.

  梁任宏在《轉進論》中透過組件式的有機模組,經由縝密藝術思考與精密計算之下,類似自然界的碎形一樣,將藝術符號碎形化,在碎形化的演進中,任何單一組件皆可與其他組件隨意相接,甚至組成更龐大的整體,但同時卻又是整體的微型反映。
Liang’s “Transevolution” fractalizes the symbols of art, like the fractals in the Nature, through component-based organic modules and elaborate art reflections and precise calculations. In the evolution of fractalization, each unit can be put together with other component, or even grouped into a giant body, while in the meantime being a subtle reflection of the whole image.

  此源自藝術家在創作上不斷地思考「拆解與重組」的概念。但這個的工作,事實上很早就開始了,梁任宏原先發展繪畫的有機造型元素,不斷地衍生與重組,並發現許多意外與讓人驚喜的組合。在《轉進論》中,發展出更為簡潔與精準的造型,以及不同的運動方式,並且模擬自然演化,宛如碎形過程,這些造型符號不斷地變化,流動與轉變,如果仔細地觀察,將會發現這些符號元素自成系統,在無窮盡的差異變化間似乎又不斷重複,回歸某種事物與生命流轉的演變之道。
This originated from the artist’s ever-reflection over “deconstruction and reconstruction”, which has long began. The developed original organic modeling elements of paintings continued to derivate and reconstruct into accidents and surprises. In “Transevolution”, simpler yet more precise exteriors, unique movements, simulation of natural evolutions, are life the progress of fractals. The symbols continued to change, to move and transform. If looking closely, the symbols and elements are in a self-generated system, seemingly repeating themselves within endless differences, and end up returning back onto a certain evolution way of things and lives that wander about.

  但我們要問的是,碎形化的用意為何?
To this we ask, what is the purpose of fractalization?

  一方面,碎形化在於不斷地分解與重組,又持續衍生新的造型,梁任宏曾說這種運動模式,極為類似台灣的生命力︰一種來自人民長期面對變動的歷史與社會而自發的求生本能,隨環境即時調整,並拼湊組裝成混合體,一種充滿創造力的生命型態;另一方面,碎形化看似不規則的發展,然而不規則當中,卻又重複著某種規則,在兩者來回之間,最終達到一種平衡,並且藉由碎形化的流動,走向無限。《轉進論》所呈現的無限繁衍的原則,向我們指出自然宇宙之道,即無窮的流動與循環是根本通則,其中存在著無數的可能性,然而也都會回歸於流動的中心。於是,看似不斷差異化的碎形,蜿蜒曲折,卻通向衍生的無垠之境,並同時觸及最深的「原型」(archetypes)結構。
In one way, the fractalization is constant deconstruction and reconstruction into new forms. Liang once said that, such movement resembles much to Taiwan’s vitality: a survival instinct developed facing ever-changing history and society that adjusts according to environment and reforms into hybrids. This is some sort of creative life form; in another, seemingly irregular development of fractalization lies in a repetition of rules. An ultimate balance will be achieved through the back and forth between the two. By the movement of fractalization, it heads towards infinity.
What “Transevolution” displays, is an endless reproduction of principles that show us the way of universe, namely the ever-movement-and-circulation is the basic principle, in which exists countless possibilities that all return to the center of the movement. Therefore, the seemingly constant differentiation of fractals, turning and rotating, lead to a derived infinity while touching the deepest archetypes.

  基於此,或許可將《轉進論》視為一具具不斷指向原型的遊戲機器。因為,作品看似精簡、現代與饒富趣味性,但從梁任宏整個創作歷程與脈絡來看,卻是一具怪異的混成體(collective body),目的在於引發不斷的流轉︰以遊戲取代工作,將世俗交融於神聖,肉身土味銘刻於機械,予鈍性以活躍性,將沉重材質轉為輕快律動,用嚴肅的存在問題鍛造輕鬆的生命態度。
Based on such, maybe we can take Transevolution as bodies of game machines that keeps pointing at the archetypes. Because the seemingly simplified, intriguing modern look of the collection is, from the entire artist’s creation history and route point of view, a weird collective body that is meant to trigger a constant movement: play instead of work, blend the world with holiness, engrave the local bodies onto machines, give vitality to bluntness, lighten up heavy materials, and, form easy life attitude with serious issue of existence.

小結技之道 Conclusion: Technique Way
  在梁任宏的創作中,技術問題一直是個關鍵,因為他是位對技術與材質有高度敏銳感受與思考的藝術家。但這個技術不以彰顯內容而存在,也不以達到目的地為優先,它更不是單純的工具,亦非途徑。它就是流動,不斷發展與轉化,生成即為它自身創造的原因。換句話說,這是一種目的自身的技術,它完成自己作為一種技術的命運,並展現其無窮潛能。
Technique has always been a key to Liang’s creation, coming from his highly sensitive perception and thinking over technique and materials. Technique does not exist to highlight the content, nor prioritized for the purpose, least a simple tool, a path. It moves, continues to develop and transform. The existence is the reason of self-creation. In other words, it is a technique of the purpose itself. It completes its own fate of being a technique, shows its own endless possibilities.

  透過特殊性技術的開展,延伸觀察梁任宏直至《轉進論》作品中動力的發展模式,包括機械動力、自然能、人機互為的動力模式,這個動力問題的轉換與創作意識,同時也是從人的角度與位置,逐漸脫離以人為中心的思考,在自然動力的帶動下跟隨自然律,邁向他者或非人稱的藝術思考,參與天地序位,自然宇宙之整體循環,一個更遼闊與寬a廣的神祕運作法則。
With particular technique expansion, we observe the power development in his Transevolution collection, from mechanic power, to natural power and human-machine interactive power pattern. The power transition and creative consciousness from human’s angle and position, gradually  detached from human-centered thinking and towards others or non-human based art thinking, led by natural power and follows natural laws. Participating in natural orders, the complete circulation of the universe, a wider, border working norm of mystery.

  於是,藉由機械與技術,我們得以返身照見自己,發現原來「道」並不遠,只是未曾發現。
Therefore, through machine and techniques, we are able to reflect ourselves, realizing that the “Dao” is not far away, it’s just that we never discover it.

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